Replication of God Helmet experiment and many other of our results. – a Blog by Dr. Michael A Persinger.

200px-Laurentian_University_CoA.svgMuch of our work, including with the God Helmet, has indeed been replicated. Claims to the contrary are mistaken . – A blog by Dr. M.A. Persinger.

Question: Have any God Helmet effects been replicated?  Have other results from your lab have seen replication?

Answer. Yes.  Every major discovery we have published that was considered “novel” has been replicated when the researcher followed the correct procedure.

A replication of God Helmet effects we have also reported in the literature was published in 2014 by a pair of Brazilian researchers (Tinoco, et al. 2014).  Their report very closely replicates one of our early studies (Richards & Persinger, 1993), using the same analytical method that distinguished subjects from controls.  That study concluded that it supports the contention that its results and those reported in our research publications are “attributable to the fields and their configurations, not to suggestibility”.  This refutes the claims that our results come from subject suggestibility.  These mistaken claims come from a researcher (Granqvist et al.) who did not set up his equipment properly.  To explain his lack of results, he claimed that none were possible, and to explain our results, he claimed that we used improper methods with suggestible subjects.  Actually, we do use double-blind and placebo controlled methods, as discussed on another page.  I and my colleagues have answered these claims formally in the literature [1] [2] ) (St-Pierre, 2006; Persinger 2005) and reviewed the methodological issues informally in web postings.

The Granqvist et al study was not designed to be a replication. They did not use the well-known helmet but instead employed a device we made for them as a prototype so they could study PET (Positron Emission Tomography) effects. This is what they claimed they were going to do when they visited the laboratory, and that was what we had in mind when we gave them their instructions for its use. They did not follow our precise timing procedures, needed to generate the fields. The effects do not occur without this precision timing.  Granqvist et al presented the fields in a non-optimal manner, and their scores for their sham and treatment groups were the same as the scores for our sham groups.  Effective magnetic fields are sensitive to the complexity of the timing of their components, just as chemical actions depend on the exact shape of the chemicals being employed. It is like changing a component of a drug and wondering why it does not work.

Granqvist wrote: “Such weak fields are considered unable to induce currents strong enough to depolarize neurons. Thus, the mechanism through which weak complex field(s) … may work remains obscure, but the waveform of the field has been suggested to be crucial” (Granqvist, 2004).  In fact, there is nothing obscure about how the fields work in the brain.

One of the pioneers in biological aspects of magnetic fields, Joseph Kirshvink (1992 A) wrote:  “A simple calculation shows that magnetosomes [chains of magnetic particles] moving in response to earth-strength ELF fields are capable of opening trans-membrane ion channels, in a fashion similar to those predicted by ionic resonance models. Hence, the presence of trace levels of biogenic [produced or brought about by living organisms] magnetite in virtually all human tissues examined suggests that similar biophysical processes may explain a variety of weak field ELF bioeffects”.

Our brains are richly populated with crystalline magnetite, containing 5 million such crystals per gram (Kirschvink, 1992 B).  In the vernacular, our fields work because these crystals move in response and because the information encoded in their movement (coming from our signals); their “patterns”, interacts with the magnetic fields that appear as a consequence of the brain’s electrical activity, a “field to field” effect.  Imagine the sun has a storm, making it’s magnetic field pulse slowly.  Here, on the earth, we would have geomagnetic storms, as pulses from the sun’s stormy field is added to that of our planet. We have found this same field that produced the sensed presence works by very specific channels within membranes that allow calcium to enter the cell (Buckner et al, 2015). The timing of the point durations that compose the specific field pattern must be precise or there is no effect.

Notwithstanding the explanation for the effects of the fields, we also know of at least a dozen researchers who have observed measurable effects from  magnetic fields that are significantly weaker than TMS.  These corroborate our reports of measurable bioeffects from weak magnetic fields and demonstrate that depolarizing neurons is not the only way magnetic fields can influence the brain.  We also did a study to demonstrate the permeability of the skull and cerebral space to magnetic fields (Persinger & Saroka, 2013).

The recent replication of our work (Tinoco, 2014) appears to resolve these issues.  We look forward to further studies in the field.

Our analgesic effects from weak applied magnetic fields, beginning in 1994 (Fleming, et al., 1994, Martin, 2004,  Gallic, 2007) were replicated by Thomas, Prato & Kavaliers in invertebrates (Thomas, 1997), rats (Shupak, 2004),  and humans (Robertson, et al., 2010).  A major review by an Italian research group (Seppia, et al., 2007) has demonstrated not only the effectiveness of these fields but their biochemical pathways.  Similar research has been done by many others (Bao, 2006, Kortekaas, 2014,).  Our work on these effects continues up to the present (Murugan, 2014).

Our work on geophysics the geophysics of luminous displays (earth lights, ball lightning, etc) has been corroborated by several researchers.  The same is true for our work in paranormal experiences and correlative geomagnetic field levels.

My original work (Persinger, 1969) concerning the effects of rotating magnetic fields upon fetal development in rats was replicated by Ossenkopp (1972).

My quantitative demonstration that a significant proportion of global warming is more related to solar corona expansion and trends in geomagnetic activity rather than all CO2 (Persinger, 2010) has been replicated by several researchers, including Sudhir (2012) and Wilson, (2014).

Our histopathological analysis of calcium aggregates in brain from excessive seizure damage (Lafreniere et al, 1992) was replicated by Japanese researchers (Mori, 2000).

Our LORETA measures concerning mental time travel, that is measuring memories of experiences from the past and present and pre-experiences of the imagined future (Lavallee, et al., 2010) are consistent with what many others have measured, including Irish (2013).

It seems that one researcher did not replicate one of our results, and online commentators have taken this to mean that none of them have been replicated.  This, in turn was distorted to imply that none of them could be.  I have little doubt that this chain of rumors and distortions has its basis in the way some have been offended by my work on religion.  Religious believers don’t want to accept that the brain could be instrumental in religious belief, and “new atheists” are offended by the idea that religion and religious experiences reflect processes intrinsic to the human brain, and can thus be considered as intrinsic to our species.

Anyone who has taken the time to precisely recreate the experimental or analytical conditions have replicated and extended our results.

I hope this blog will clarify that much of our work has been replicated and that we look forward to persevering in our efforts.

Dr. Michael A. Persinger
Full Professor
Behavioural Neuroscience, Biomolecular Sciences and Human Studies
Departments of Psychology and Biology
Laurentian University,
Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6
Email: mpersinger@laurentian.ca and drpersinger@neurocog.ca
NOTE: This blog is hosted by a colleague.

 


REFERENCES

St-Pierre, L.S., and M. A. Persinger. “Experimental facilitation of the sensed presence is predicted by the specific patterns of the applied magnetic fields, not by suggestibility: re-analyses of 19 experiments.” International Journal of Neuroscience 116.19 (2006): 1079-1096.

Persinger, Michael A., and S. A. Koren. “A response to Granqvist et al.“Sensed presence and mystical experiences are predicted by suggestibility, not by the application of transcranial weak magnetic fields”.” Neuroscience Letters 380.3 (2005): 346-347.

Tinoca, Carlos A., and João PL Ortiz. “Magnetic Stimulation of the Temporal Cortex: A Partial “God Helmet” Replication Study.” Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 5.3 (2014).

Richards, Pauline M., Michael A. Persinger, and Stan A. Koren. “Modification of activation and evaluation properties of narratives by weak complex magnetic field patterns that simulate limbic burst firing.” International journal of Neuroscience 71.1-4 (1993): 71-85.

Granqvist, Pehr, et al. “Sensed presence and mystical experiences are predicted by suggestibility, not by the application of transcranial weak complex magnetic fields.” Neuroscience Letters 379.1 (2005): 1-6.

Kirschvink, Joseph L., et al. “Magnetite in human tissues: a mechanism for the biological effects of weak ELF magnetic fields.” Bioelectromagnetics 13.S1 (1992 A): 101-113.

Kirschivink, Joseph L., Kobayashi-Kisshvink, Atsuko & Woodford, Barbera J. “Magnetite biomineralization in the Human Brain”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 1992 (B), 89 7683-7687

Buckner CA, Buckner AL, Koren SA, Persinger MA, Lafrenie RM (2015) Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth by Exposure to a Specific Time-Varying Electromagnetic Field Involves T-Type Calcium Channels. PLoS ONE 10(4): e0124136. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0124136

M. Persinger and K. Saroka, “Minimum Attenuation of Physiologically-Patterned, 1µ Tesla Magnetic Fields through Simulated Skull and Cerebral Space,” Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications, Vol. 5 No. 4, 2013, pp. 151-156.

Fleming, Jennifer L., M. A. Persinger, and Stanley A. Koren. “Magnetic pulses elevate nociceptive thresholds: Comparisons with opiate receptor compounds in normal and seizure-induced brain-damaged rats.” Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 13.1 (1994): 67-75.

MartinL.J. , S.A. Koren, M.A. Persinger “Thermal analgesic effects from weak, complex magnetic fields and pharmacological interactions”  Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 78 (2004) 217–227

Galic M.A. and Persinger M.A. “Lagged Association Between Geomagnetic Activity and Diminished Nocturnal Pain Thresholds in Mice”  Bioelectromagnetics 28:577, 579 (2007)

Thomas, Alex W., et al. “Antinociceptive effects of a pulsed magnetic field in the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis.” Neuroscience letters 222.2 (1997): 107-110.

Robertson, John A., et al. “Evidence for a dose-dependent effect of pulsed magnetic fields on pain processing.” Neuroscience letters 482.2 (2010): 160-162.

Del Seppia, Cristina, et al. “Pain perception and electromagnetic fields.”Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 31.4 (2007): 619-642.

Bao, Xiuqi, et al. “A possible involvement of β‐endorphin, substance P, and serotonin in rat analgesia induced by extremely low frequency magnetic field.”  Bioelectromagnetics 27.6 (2006): 467-472.

Kortekaas, R., et al. “Weak field transcerebral pulsed electromagnetic fields in health care.” Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), 2014 8th European Conference on IEEE, 2014.

Murugan, Nirosha J. , Lukasz M. Karbowski and Michael A. Persinger “Weak burst-firing magnetic fields that produce analgesia equivalent to morphine do not initiate activation of proliferation pathways in human breast cells in culture” Integrative Cancer Science and Therapeutics, 2014 Volume 1(3): 47-50

Persinger, Michael A. “Open‐field behavior in rats exposed prenatally to a low intensity‐low frequency, rotating magnetic field.” Developmental psychobiology 2.3 (1969): 168-171.

Ossenkopp, Klaus P. “Maturation and open-field behavior in rats exposed prenatally to an ELF low-intensity rotating magnetic field.” Psychological Reports, Vol 30(2), Apr 1972, 371-374.

Persinger, Michael A. “The cosmology of climate change: Intercorrelations between increased global temperature, carbon dioxide and geomagnetic activity.” Journal of Cosmology 8 (2010): 1957-1969.

Sudhir, Joshi Indira , Christiana, Tadiparti Mary “Linkage between Cyclonic storms, Geomagnetic storms, Sunspot numbers and Climate Change”  Research Journal of Recent Sciences  Vol. 1(2), 100-103, Feb. (2012)

Wilson, Robert M. “On the Relationship Between Global Land-Ocean Temperature and Various Descriptors of Solar-Geomagnetic Activity and Climate.” NASA/TP—2014–218193, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 62 pp, 2014.

Lafreniere, Ghislaine F., Oksana Peredery, and Michael A. Persinger. “Progressive accumulation of large aggregates of calcium-containing polysaccharides and basophilic debris within specific thalamic nuclei after lithium/pilocarpine-induced seizures.” Brain research bulletin 28.5 (1992): 825-830.

Mori, Fumiaki, Kunikazu Tanji, and Koichi Wakabayashi. “Widespread calcium deposits, as detected using the alizarin red S technique, in the nervous system of rats treated with dimethyl mercury.” Neuropathology 20.3 (2000): 210-215.

Irish, Muireann, and Olivier Piguet. “The pivotal role of semantic memory in remembering the past and imagining the future.” Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience 7 (2013).

 

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God Helmet Experiments use Blind Protocols and Placebo Controls – A Blog By Dr. M.A. Persinger

God_helmetOur God Helmet experiments employ double-blind conditions and placebo protocols – a Blog by Dr. Michael A. Persinger.

Our Critics are mistaken when they claim we do not use proper controls.  We are committed to the scientific method, especially in laboratory experiments, including subject blindness, experimenter blindness, control groups, and blindness by those who analyse our data.

Question:  What are your standard double-blind and placebo controlled protocols?

Answer: Expectancy and confirmation bias are always important variables when human beings are measuring or being measured. Most of our major experiments over the last three decades with the sensed presence were double blind.  For a placebo, we use a “sham” or absent magnetic field, which we create by disconnecting the solenoids (magnetic coils) from the signal source.  We also exploit all ways and means for ensuring that our subjects are not given any suggestions as to the purpose of the experiment.

Subject Expectations

The subjects volunteered for a relaxation study and were told (via the consent form) they might be exposed to a weak magnetic field. Four to six weeks prior to their participation, the subjects had completed intake questionnaires.  Some critics have mistakenly said that our questionnaires (which asked about some spiritual and otherworldly experiences and beliefs) were administered immediately before the experimental sessions, and that this introduced inadvertent suggestions. In fact, our standard procedure is to separate the questionnaires from the sessions by an average of a month.  They are eventually invited to participate in a “Relaxation Experiment”, so they are unaware that the questionnaires given previously have any relation to the experiment.  The subjects are kept in the experimentally blind condition.  They are not influenced by expectations when coming into our lab.  The lab itself looks like a busy workplace, and is not decorated with religious or spiritual images.

Blind Protocols

The experimenter, usually an undergraduate or graduate student, who runs the experiment is not aware of the true hypothesis or mechanism.

One summary of our work with the sensed presence is our publication, “The sensed presence within experimental settings: implications for the male and female concept of self” The Journal of Psychology, 2003, 137, 5-16. link

Here is a very brief summary of that experiment, with its 50 male and 50 female subjects.

In this study, we used a signal derived from burst-firing in the amygdala, applying it over the temporal lobes via a set of four solenoids over each temporal lobe.  We rotated the signal by turning them on and off in sequence.  All of this was built into the hardware (The God Helmet) or coded into the software that drives it, written by Stanley Koren.  We applied the signal for 10 minutes, gave it a 5 minute break, and applied it for another 10 minutes.  This was done to avoid habituation.

We observed double-blind conditions (access the research report):

“All participants were tested by experimenters who were not familiar with the purpose of the experiment.”

“The participants were told that the experiment was concerned with relaxation.”

Note that in some experiments, subjects were told that the experiment concerned memory.  The relaxation and memory suggestions kept the subject in an experimentally blind condition.

The experimenter ran different patterns of magnetic fields created by Professor Stan Koren and me.  Once the results were collected they were analyzed routinely by SPSS  (statistical analysis) software.

Women reported more frequent experiences of a sensed presence than men did , and men were more likely than women to consider these experiences as “intrusions” from extrapersonal or ego-alien sources. Both effects were predicted by one of our hypotheses (vectoral hemisphericity) and the known neurologically-based cognitive differences between right-handed men and right-handed women.

The point here is that we do in fact use double-blind conditions, and claims to the contrary are simply not true.  Other examples, referenced here, include Richards (1992) Persinger (1994), Healey (1996), Persinger (1999), Persinger, (2002) Booth (2005), Tiller (2002), Corradini, (2014).  I have emphasized this in my response to Pehr Granqvist (who made critical technical errors with our equipment, and alleged that our results were due to improper blinding and subject suggestibility), as follows:

“In all of our major studies, involving more than 400 subjects, during the last 20 years the subjects were not aware of their experimental conditions and experimenters were not familiar with the hypotheses being tested or both were not aware of the experimental condition. Subjects had volunteered for “memory” or “relaxation” studies and were randomly or serially allocated to conditions. The “sensed presence” issue was never discussed. The person generating the hypothesis never had direct contact with the subjects.” (Persinger, 2005)

Regrettably, online critics often fail to include this critical reply to Dr. Granqvist.

Let me underscore that we have applied double-blind protocols in our “sensed presence” studies, (to make the differences in stimulation explicit) by quoting another of our papers:

“Under double blind conditions, the subjects who were exposed to the burst-firing pattern presented over both hemispheres or the right hemisphere reported more sensed presences than those exposed to the sham-field [control] or to left hemispheric presentations. Subjects in the latter condition reported fewer sensed presences than the sham-field controls. (Booth, 2005 B)”

Here, stimulation of the right hemisphere is compared to both stimulation of the left, and to controls.  This method allows greater certainty for our results.

Moreover, we often employ “blind” analysis of EEG and QEEG data, in which the person carrying out the analysis does not know what hypothesis the data is intended to study (Makarec, 1990).

In our rat studies, we also carry out blind analysis of rat brain sections, in which the investigator does not know which brain regions may have been affected by a procedure, or the magnitude of the differences predicted between the rat brains used in the study and those which were not (Fournier, 2012). In rat studies investigating differences in rat behavior following stimulation with magnetic signals, the experimenter observing their behavior is kept blind to the experimental condition (Whissell, 2007, McKay, 2004, Bureau, 1994, Babik, 1992).  Our examination of microscope slides from rat subjects and controls is also done under blind conditions (Cook, 1999). We have also carried out similar procedures with worm (planarium – Dugesia sp.) studies (Mulligan, 2012).

” …a total of 10 undergraduate students participated in measuring the worms’ activity; the students were unaware of the experimental conditions, that is, the study was completely “blind”.”

When we analyze the congruence between intuitively-derived narratives from individuals with exceptional cognitive skills and actual information, we use groups of student “raters” who compare the two data sets, and rate the degree of congruence.  All raters are “blind” in that they don’t know anything about the circumstances under which the narratives were derived, or the overall purpose of the experiment (Hunter, 2010).  We also employed the same technique to assess the accuracy of remote viewing by the artist Ingo Swann using graphic images he sketched during remote viewing sessions, augmented by our “Octopus” apparatus (Persinger, 2002, B).  In a related case history, we attempted to interpolate a specific image from a collection of art prints into the dreams of another.  The “agent”, who repeatedly viewed a randomly-chosen (based on dice throws) art image, was the only one who knew which image was being used.

“The interviews were conducted double blind; neither the percipient nor the experimenters knew the identity of the target or the pool of art prints from which the target had been randomly selected.”

The results demonstrated that greater accuracy was associated with lower geomagnetic activity.

Placebo Controlled, Double-Blind Studies.

Our placebo controls are created by using inert electromagnets (solenoids).  These are not attached to the signal source.  The experimental procedures are identical in all other respects.  We also use our sham fields in studies in conjunction with double-blind conditions.  Here are a few examples:

  • Corradini’s (2014) study facilitating declarative memory
  • Fournier’s (2012) experiment with prenatal rat hippocampus stimulation
  • Mulligan’s (2012) study with planaria.
  • Whissell’s (2007) experiment on the interactions of nitric oxide and seven hertz magnetic fields.
  • Booth’s (2005) sensed presence study.
  • My own study on increased alpha activity from the left hemisphere with stimulation with our burst-firing pattern (Persinger, 1999).
  • My study on enhanced hypnotic suggestibility (Persinger, 1996).
  • A study that assessed the pleasantness of a long-term potentiation signal (Persinger, 1994).
  • A study of coherent responses to Reiki between practitioners and clients (Ventura, 2014)
  • An experiment with altered state experiences with circumcerebral magnetic stimulation (Collins, 2013)
  • Lowering depression and increasing alpha activity in the frontal lobe. (Corradini, 2013)

Sham fields are also used in our studies with cell cultures (Murugan, 2014 A), water Ph (Murigan, 2014 B), Obesity in rats (St-Pierre, 2014), Suppression of Cancer cells, (Karbowski, 2012), energy storage in water (Gang, 2012), planeria studies (Gang, 2011)  and scores of other studies that didn’t use human subjects.

The issue of double blind and placebo control is less important with our modern technology because of the availability of normative (“averages”) for different states, including placebo response states.  Comparing the results of our EEG studies to standard normative EEG states allows us to make inferences that would have required baseline (control) readings just a few years ago (Congedo, 2010).

During the last 5 years, quantitative electroencephalographic measurements by computer and the algorithms to compute distributions of power within the volume of the brain for different frequency bands have become available, and these have revealed that different patterns of fields, delivered to different sides of the brain, produce specific patterns regardless if the person knows if a field is presented or not (Saroka, 2013). Placebo effects produce very specific patterns that are not the same as those associated with either the field presentation or the field plus sensed presence effect.

In spite of claims to the contrary, we do use placebo controls and blind experimental conditions.  Our emphasis has been on quantifiable data, replication, and blind conditions, wherever possible and appropriate.  We remain committed to the scientific method.

I hope this blog will clarify our use of blind conditions, placebo controls and suggestion in our laboratory.

Dr. Michael A. Persinger
Full Professor
Behavioural Neuroscience, Biomolecular Sciences and Human Studies
Departments of Psychology and Biology
Laurentian University,
Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6
Email: mpersinger@laurentian.ca and drpersinger@neurocog.ca
NOTE: This blog is hosted by a colleague.


P.M. Richards, S.A. Koren, M.A. Persinger, Experimental stimulation by burst-firing weak magnetic fields over the right temporal lobe may facilitate apprehension in women, Perceptual and Motor Skills 75 (1992) 667–670.

Persinger MA, Richards PM, Koren SA.  “Differential ratings of pleasantness following right and left hemispheric application of low energy magnetic fields that stimulate long-term potentiation.”  International Journal of Neuroscience. 1994 Dec;79(3-4):191-7.

Healey F, Persinger MA, Koren SA.  “Enhanced hypnotic suggestibility following application of burst-firing magnetic fields over the right temporoparietal lobes: a replication.”  International Journal of Neuroscience.  1996 Nov;87(3-4):201-7.

Krippner, Stanley, and Persinger, Michael. “Evidence for enhanced congruence between dreams and distant target material during periods of decreased geomagnetic activity.” Journal of Scientific Exploration 10.4 (1996): 487-493.

Persinger, M. A. “Increased emergence of alpha activity over the left but not the right temporal lobe within a dark acoustic chamber: differential response of the left but not the right hemisphere to transcerebral magnetic fields.” International Journal of Psychophysiology 34.2 (1999): 163-169.

M.A. Persinger, F. Healey, Experimental facilitation of the sensed presence: possible intercalation between the hemispheres induced by complex magnetic fields, Journal of . Nervous and Mental Disorders. 190 (2002) 533–541.

Booth, J. N., S. A. Koren, and M. A. Persinger. “Increased feelings of the sensed presence and increased geomagnetic activity at the time of the experience during exposures to transcerebral weak complex magnetic fields.”International Journal of Neuroscience 115.7 (2005 A): 1053-1079.

Tiller, S.G; Persinger, M.A. , Geophysical variables and behavior: XCVII. Increased proportions of left-sided sense of presence induced experimentally by right hemispheric application of specific (frequency-modulated) complex magnetic fields, Perceptual and Motor Skills 94 (2002) 26–28.

Persinger, Michael A., Letter to the Editor “A response to Granqvist et al. “Sensed presence and mystical experiences are predicted by suggestibility, not by the application of transcranial weak magnetic fields” Neuroscience Letters 380 (2005) 346–347

Makarec, Katherine,; Persinger, Michael A. “Electroencephalographic Validation of a Temporal Lobe Signs Inventory in a Normal Population”, Journal of Research in Personality, 24, 323-337 (1990)

Corradini, Paula L. Collins, Mark W. G.  Persinger Dr. Michael A.  “Facilitation of Declarative Memory and Congruent Brain States by Applications of Weak, Patterned Magnetic Fields: The Future of Memory Access?”  International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Vol. 4, No. 13; November 2014, 30

Neil M. Fournier, Quoc Hao Mach, Paul D. Whissell, Michael A. Persinger “Neurodevelopmental anomalies of the hippocampus in rats exposed to weak intensity complex magnetic fields throughout gestation” International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 30 (2012) 427–433

Whissell, P.D. , Persinger, M.A.; “Developmental effects of perinatal exposure to extremely weak 7 Hz magnetic fields and nitric oxide modulation in the Wistar albino rat ” International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience 25 (2007) 433–439

McKay, B. E., and M. A. Persinger. “Normal spatial and contextual learning for ketamine-treated rats in the pilocarpine epilepsy model.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 78.1 (2004): 111-119.

Bureau, Y. R. J., O. Peredery, and M. A. Persinger. “Concordance of quantitative damage within the diencephalon and telencephalon following systemic pilocarpine (380 mg/kg) or lithium (3 mEq/kg)/pilocarpine (30 mg/kg) induced seizures.” Brain Research 648.2 (1994): 265-269.

Missaghi, Babik, Pauline M. Richards, and Michael A. Persinger. “Severity of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in rats depends upon the temporal contiguity between limbic seizures and inoculation.” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 43.4 (1992): 1081-1086.

Cook, Lisa L., and M. A. Persinger. “Infiltration of lymphocytes in the limbic brain following stimulation of subclinical cellular immunity and low dosages of lithium and a cholinergic agent.” Toxicology letters 109.1 (1999): 77-85.

Mulligan, Bryce P. , Noa Gang, Glenn H. Parker, Michael A. Persinger  “Magnetic Field Intensity/Melatonin-Molarity Interactions: Experimental Support with Planarian (Dugesia sp.) Activity for a Resonance-Like Process” Open Journal of Biophysics, 2012, 2, 137-143

Hunter, M.D., Mulligan, B.P., Dotta, B. T., Saroka, K. S., Lavallee, C. F., Koren, S. A., & Persinger, M. A., “Cerebral Dynamics and Discrete Energy Changes in the Personal Physical Environment During Intuitive-Like States and Perceptions” Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research December 2010, Vol. 1, Issue 9, pp. 1179-1197

Persinger MA, Roll WG, Tiller SG, Koren SA, Cook CM.  “Remote viewing with the artist Ingo Swann: neuropsychological profile, electroencephalographic correlates, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and possible mechanisms.”  Perceptual and Motor Skills.  2002(B) Jun;94(3 Pt 1):927-49.

Murugan, Nirosha J., Lukasz M. Karbowski, and Michael A. Persinger. “Weak burst-firing magnetic fields that produce analgesia equivalent to morphine do not initiate activation of proliferation pathways in human breast cells in culture.” (2014).

Murugan, N. J., L. M. Karbowski, and M. A. Persinger. “Serial pH Increments (~ 20 to 40 Milliseconds) in Water during Exposures to Weak, Physiologically Patterned Magnetic Fields: Implications for Consciousness.” Water 6 (2014): 45-60.

St-Pierre, Linda S., and Michael A. Persinger. “Progressive Obesity in Female Rats from Synergistic Interactions between Drugs and Whole Body Application of Weak, Physiologically Patterned Magnetic Fields.” Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science 2014

Ventura, Anabela C., Kevin S. Saroka, and Michael A. Persinger. “Non-Locality changes in intercerebral theta band coherence between practitioners and subjects during distant Reiki procedures.” Journal of Nonlocality 3.1 (2014).

Collins, Mark W. G. Persinger, Michael A.  “Changing Velocity Circumcerebral Magnetic Fields Produce Altered State Experiences and Lowered Delta-Theta Power over the Temporal Lobes”  Frontiers in Psychological and Behavioral Science Apr. 2013, Vol. 2 Iss. 2, PP. 26-29

Corradini, Paula L., and Michael A. Persinger. “Brief Cerebral Applications of Weak, Physiologically-patterned Magnetic Fields Decrease Psychometric Depression and Increase Frontal Beta Activity in Normal Subjects.” Journal of Neurology & Neurophysiology (2013).

Karbowski, Lukasz M., et al. “Digitized quantitative electroencephalographic patterns applied as magnetic fields inhibit melanoma cell proliferation in culture.” Neuroscience letters 523.2 (2012): 131-134.

Gang, N., L. S. St-Pierre, and M. A. Persinger. “Water dynamics following treatment by one hour 0.16 Tesla static magnetic fields depend on exposure volume.” Water 3 (2012): 122-131.

Gang, Noa, and Michael A. Persinger. “Planarian activity differences when maintained in water pre-treated with magnetic fields: a nonlinear effect.”Electromagnetic biology and medicine 30.4 (2011): 198-204.

Congedo, Marco, et al. “Group independent component analysis of resting state EEG in large normative samples.” International Journal of Psychophysiology78.2 (2010): 89-99.

Saroka, Kevin & Persinger MA, “Potential production of Hughlings Jackson’s “parasitic consciousness” by physiologically patterned weak transcerebral magnetic fields: QEEG and source localization” Epilepsy and Behavior, 2013, 28, 395-407