Replications of our work on Geomagnetism and Paranormal Phenomena – A Blog By Dr. Michael A. Persinger.

Several researchers, including myself, have observed correlations between geomagnetic activity and reports of paranormal phenomena. A blog by Dr. M.A. Persinger.

Question: It has been said that your work on the effects of geomagnetic variables on paranormal phenomena “has not been replicated”. Is this true?Dr. Michael Persinger

Answer: No; Our results have been replicated repeatedly.

Confused claims that my work (on the effects of geomagnetic influences on paranormal phenomena) has not been replicated are based on the mistaken belief that its based on experiments.   Instead, the results are based on statistical analyses (replication procedures are for experiments) correlating a wide range of data with geomagnetic states.  To validate a statistical study, one has only to obtain the data, and perform the calculations.

The “geomagnetic effect” has been found in a variety of anecdotal data throughout recorded history.  The experimental dream psi studies from Ullmann and Krippner (1970) were done almost 50 years ago.

For decades after that, groups of researchers, including myself and my colleagues, have investigated the contributions of the geomagnetic field to paranormal phenomena.  Each working independently, we have replicated and extended one another’s work.  There are a few differences in what we’ve found.  Replication and significant convergences in results are commonplace in this field.

Spottiswoode (1997) reported that unusually high effect sizes may be observed in trials with anomalous cognition (PSI, ESP, etc) occurring during specific windows in sidereal time when geomagnetic fluctuations are also minimal.  This confirms our finding that geomagnetic quiet is conducive to these kinds of experiences.  The same author (1990) also reported negative correlations between scores in free response anomalous cognition experiments and geomagnetic fluctuations, confirmed in four datasets which showed significant anomalous cognition.

Adrian Ryan has explored the correlations we have seen between geophysical activity and hypothesized that ESP effects may be due to geomagnetic pulsations, a line of research that both replicates and extends some of our efforts (Ryan, 2008).

Researchers Haraldsson and Gissurarson (1987) studied the scores from 70 Ganzfeld sessions (telepathy-clairvoyance) and found they related significantly to high geomagnetic activity of the day prior to the experimental sessions but not to the geomagnetic activity during the day of the sessions. The same relationship was found in experiments which consisted mostly of 80 trials with clairvoyance computer games per subject.  Their results partially confirmed our earlier findings that spontaneous paranormal experience tend to occur on a day of low geomagnetic activity which is preceded by days of high geomagnetic activity.

Lipniki (2009) replicated the geomagnetic effect without referring to psi effects in a case report where dreams from low geomagnetic activity periods were found to be significantly more bizarre than dreams from periods with high geomagnetic activity .

Another case history implies a strong correlation between sleep paralysis and geomagnetic quiet.   Conesa (1995) reported that periods of relatively quiet geomagnetic activity were significantly associated with an increased incidence of sleep paralysis episodes, and also (Conesa, 1997) dream vividness.  Moturi et al., (2013) also noted correlations between geomagnetic states and sleep paralysis.

In a study done during the quietest geomagnetic year in a century, small correlations were found with male subjects, who showed higher psi scores when the geomagnetic field was more active.  However, in confirmation of our results, the participants with the highest temporal lobe questionnaire scores showed the strongest correlation of psi with geomagnetic activity (Roney-Dougal, 2014).  This corroborates our early finding that PSI effects are most probable during times of geomagnetic quiet.  We have published several papers showing this effect, including a meta-analysis spanning 60 years of studies (Berger, 1991).  It also replicates our result that Temporal Lobe Signs are higher for people reporting PSI skills and experiences. (Persinger, 1990)

The “geomagnetic” effect as inferred from solar wind velocity was reported by Randall and Randall (1991), who examined data from the 19th century on hallucinations and magnetic disturbances.  These were found to exhibit a direct and statistically significant correlation.  It’s easy to see how this corroborates our work correlating geomagnetic activity with paranormal, PSI, ESP and other anomalous experiences when we recall that changes in solar winds are one of the primary sources for geomagnetic variations.

Our work with the effects of elevated magnetic field strengths (rather than geomagnetic activity) has been replicated by JJ Braithwaite (2004), who reported that  That “the overall magnetic field strength (amplitude) is greater at areas of interest [areas generating higher numbers of reports of paranormal perceptions] relative to baseline areas”.  The same researcher (2005) observed the same effect in a “haunted bedroom”.  This corroborated and extended of our results in it’s observation of “large static inhomogeneous magnetic field and complex temporal distortions in the time-varying (AC) magnetic fields”.  We have seen (Persinger, 1997) that similarly anisotropic structures within both the geomagnetic field and in our complex magnetic stimulation fields also contribute to their subjective effects.

Our work on the association between geomagnetic and paranormal phenomena has also been replicated by Roll (2000) who made recordings of the local geomagnetic fields (GMFs), electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and ion densities in putatively haunted locations. On the basis of previous studies he predicted that the sites would exhibit anomalous EMFs or GMFs. Ten out of twelve of the sites did show such anomalies.

It’s also worth noting that in addition to the paranormal and ESP effects noted above, the scientific literature includes many studies of the effects of geomagnetic activity on medical and psychiatric disorders and issues.  These include stress (Rapoport, 1998 ), suicide (Berk, 2005), blood pressure (Dimitrova, 2004) psychiatric admissions (Raps, 1992), stroke (Feigin, 2014), changes in EEG profiles (Novik, 2013) and errors in performing laboratory tasks (Binhi, 2009).  The geomagnetic field makes these effects more likely, but doesn’t cause them.

I hope this blog will clarify the value of studying geophysical influences on human cognition and health.

Dr. Michael A. Persinger
Full Professor
Behavioural Neuroscience, Biomolecular Sciences and Human Studies
Departments of Psychology and Biology
Laurentian University,
Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6
Email: mpersinger@laurentian.ca and drpersinger@neurocog.ca
NOTE: This blog is hosted by a colleague.

 

REFERENCES:

Ullman, Montague, and Stanley Krippner. Dream studies and telepathy: An experimental approach. No. 12. Parapsychology Foundation, 1970.

Roney-Dougal, Serena M., Ryan, Adrian , and Luke, David  “THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL GEOMAGNETIC ACTIVITY AND PSYCHIC AWARENESS”, Journal of Parapsychology, 2014, 78(2), 235–254

Haraldsson, Erlendur; Gissurarson, Loftur R. “Does geomagnetic activity effect extrasensory perception? Personality and individual differences, 1987, v8 (n5):745-747

Ryan, Adrian. “New insights into the links between ESP and geomagnetic activity.” Journal of Scientific Exploration 22.3 (2008): 335-358.

Persinger, M.A.; Fisher, Susan; “Elevated, Specific Temporal lobe Signs in a Population Engaged in Psychic Studies”. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1990, 71, 817-818

Lipnicki DM. “An association between geomagnetic activity and dream bizarreness.” Medical Hypotheses. 2009 Jul;73(1):115-7.

Nishimura T, Tada H, Nakatani E, Matsuda K, Teramukai S, Fukushima M.”Stronger geomagnetic fields may be a risk factor of male suicides.” Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. 2014 Jun;68(6):404-9.

Gordon, Charmaine;  Berk Michael  “The effect of geomagnetic storms on suicide.”  South African Psychiatry Review 2003;6:24-27

Spottiswoode, S. James P. “Geomagnetic fluctuations and free-response anomalous cognition: A new understanding.” Journal of Parapsychology 61.1 (1997): 3-12.

Berger R.E.; Persinger, M.A. “Geophysical variables and behavior: LXVII. Quieter annual geomagnetic Activity and effect Size for Experimental psi (ESP) studies over six decades”. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1991 Dec, v73 (n3, Pt2 Spec issue):1219-1223

Conesa J.  “Relationship between isolated sleep paralysis and geomagnetic influences: a case study.”  Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1995 Jun;80 (3 Pt 2):1263-73. link

CONESA JORGE (1997) ISOLATED SLEEP PARALYSIS, VIVID DREAMS AND GEOMAGNETIC INFLUENCES: II. Perceptual and Motor Skills: Volume 85, Issue , pp. 579-584.

Moturi, Sricharan, and Poojitha Matta. “Recurrent Isolated Sleep Paralysis (RISP).” Parasomnias. Springer New York, 2013. 201-206.

Randall W, Randall S. “The solar wind and hallucinations—a possible relation due to magnetic disturbances.”  Bioelectromagnetics. 1991;12(1):67-70.

Braithwaite, Jason J. “Magnetic variances associated with ‘haunt-type’experiences: a comparison using time-synchronised baseline measurements.” European Journal of Parapsychology 19 (2004): 3-28.

Braithwaite, Jason J., and Maurice Townsend. “Research Note: Sleeping With the Entity–A Quantitative Magnetic Investigation of an English Castle’s Reputedly ‘Haunted’Bedroom.” European Journal of Parapsychology 20 (2005): 65-78.

Persinger, Michael A. “Metaphors for the effects of weak, sequentially complex magnetic fields.” Perceptual and motor skills 85.1 (1997): 204-206.

Roll, W.G., & Nichols, A (2000) “Psychological and electromagnetic aspects of haunts.” Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Convention of the Parapsychological Association. 364-378.pS

Rapoport SI, Boldypakova TD, Malinovskaia NK, Oraevski? VN, Meshcheriakova SA, Breus TK, Sosnovski? AM. “Magnetic storms as a stress factor.” Biofizika [Biophysics]. 1998 Jul-Aug;43(4):632-9.

Berk M, Dodd S, Henry M. “Do ambient electromagnetic fields affect behaviour? A demonstration of the relationship between geomagnetic storm activity and suicide” Bioelectromagnetics. 2005 Nov 22;27(2):151-155

Raps A, Stoupel E, Shimshoni M. “Geophysical variables and behavior: LXIX. Solar activity and admission of psychiatric patients. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1992 Apr;74(2):449-50.

Dimitrova S, Stoilova I, Cholakov I. “Influence of local geomagnetic storms on arterial blood pressure.” Bioelectromagnetics. 2004 Sep;25(6):408-14.

Feigin VL(et al.) “Geomagnetic storms can trigger stroke: evidence from 6 large population-based studies in Europe and Australasia.” Stroke. 2014 Jun;45(6):1639-45.

Novik OB, Smirnov FA. “Geomagnetic storm decreases coherence of electric oscillations of human brain while working at the computer.” Biofizika (Biophysics). 2013 May-Jun;58(3):554-60

Binhi VN, Sarimov RM. “Zero magnetic field effect observed in human cognitive processes.” Electromagnetic and Biological Medicine. 2009;28(3):310-5.

 

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The Tectonic Strain Theory and French’s “Haunted Room” Experiment – a Blog By Dr. Michael Persinger.

My Tectonic Strain Theory is alive and well – a Blog by Dr. M.A. Persinger.

Despite claims to the contrary, there have been a number of replications, corroborations, and validations of my work with the Tectonic Strain Theory from several independent researchers.

Misleading claims that my work with Tectonic Strain Theory has not been replicated are based on the mistaken belief that its based on experiments.   Instead, the theory is based on a series of statistical analyses (replication procedures are for experiments, not statistical arguments).  To “replicate” a statistical study, one only has to obtain the data, and perform the necessary calculations.  In such a case, it would be more properly said to have been “corroborated” or “validated”, not replicated.  Critics, wanting to disparage my work in this field, have pointed to a “Haunted Room” experiment, and incorrectly implied that it was a test of my work on the relationship between geomagnetic conditions and the propensity to report paranormal and other unusual experiences.

Question: Does ChristopherGreat_Balls_of_Lightning French’s “haunted room study” have anything to do with your tectonic strain theory or the way you study the role of the earth’s magnetic field in paranormal experiences?

Answer:  No. French’s experiment has little (if any) relationship to the tectonic strain theory, which explains with the creation of luminosities (“lights in the sky”) before earthquakes.  We have found that these correlate with UFO sightings, apparitions, and other phenomena.  In brief, this theory tells us that electrical and magnetic fields produced by the bedrock while its being strained by the pressure that’s eventually discharged by an earthquake create luminous displays, like earth lights, ball lightning, and sometimes dramatic lights in the sky.  We also find that these fields can create unstable conditions in the brain, especially the deep portions of the temporal lobes.  This instability can lead to hallucinatory experiences which people interpret in terms of their cultural and learning history as well as their private beliefs, so they are interpreted and then seen as spirits, the Virgin Mary, angels, alien spacecraft or ghosts.  This idea has recently been independently proposed by another researcher, who hypothesizes that “ball lightning” may induce hallucinations (Witze, 2010).   My first publication in the field (1976) used the same concept to explain UFO reports.

French’s experiment consisted of trying to construct a “haunted room” by building a room and filling it with magnetic signals and infrasound.  The experiment did not succeed.  French is a well-known skeptic, but not experienced in the proper use of the “complex magnetic” neural stimulation we use in our lab.  We have been able to successfully perform several experiments, inducing paranormal experiences, and apparitions, using this technology, applied using the God Helmet ®.

French’s experiment used a wave pattern that could not have created the conditions for synthetic paranormal experiences because he was not able to generate the appropriate point durations we use in our lab.  The point durations (how long each bit of the signal lasts) are so important that altering them makes them ineffective. I e-mailed him and offered to share the equipment but he declined, and instead chose to develop his own apparatus, including a procedure in which “The … burst pattern was generated by constructing a table of values from (a) graph of the waveform used and then converting these numeric values…” (French, et al., 2008)

The graph French refers to here is a graph of point (X axis) and Field strength (Y axis).  However, the graph doesn’t display the durations of the points on the X axis.  We have kept that specific parameter flexible in order to allow experimentation with different point (or pixel) durations.  Incorrect point durations will yield ineffective signals.  Our many experiments with varying point durations have shown us that precision in this regard is critical.  A metaphor may be helpful here.  It is as though we hear the phrase “clean the turpentine brushes” as “queen a serpentine buses”.  The majority of the phonemes may be correct, but the information content will be absent, and the communication cannot initiate an appropriate response.

My colleague Todd Murphy, who has developed multiple systems that effectively deliver our (complex magnetic) signals points out in a brief web entry that Christopher French used the “Goldwave” audio editor to render his signals.  Professor Murphy used this same method early in 1999 for the first draft of his signals, which did not work.  His signals became effective only after he introduced his proprietary methods for developing the signals the following year.  We validated their effectiveness in a paper published in 2004.  The techniques used to render effective audio equivalents to our (God Helmet) signals were not applied in French’s Study.  Prof. Murphy informs me that his signals were drafted eighteen times overall.

French (at al.) edited his signal ” into a 16-bit.wav file using Goldwave (software) at a sample rate of 1000 Hz for playback via the computer’s soundcard.”  It may be relevant that Murphy’s signals do not use this sampling rate.

Subjects in our experiments are informed that they are participating in a “relaxation experiment”.  French’s subjects were “… informed in advance that they might experience unusual sensations whilst in the chamber …”.  The difference in “priming” may have predisposed his subjects towards apprehensiveness, and facilitated arousal, which we have found reduces effect sizes.

It may also be relevant that the background sound levels in the French study were significantly above the values we require to obtain the sensed presence. That’s why we employ the echoic (acoustically silent) chamber.  When we first started the research 30 years ago we employed New Age Music while the fields were presented and found the sensed presence was actually reduced. That’s why music was removed from the protocol. In addition, because the temporal lobes are discerning the applied fields (as are neuroimaging profiles indicate) sound pressure from any source is also represented within the temporal lobes, and interferes with the effect.  A significant portion of default mode temporal lobe excitation functions to monitor ambient sound.  Employing a truly silent environment recruits this activity into the neural responses to the signals.

Perhaps the most important difference between our procedures and those employed by French (at al.) is that they used a room to apply the signals, while we utilize a helmet, designed for the human head.  Our equipment allows us to apply our signals to either the left or right temporal lobes or both.  This allows us to perform our stimulation sessions with more than one hemispheric presentation.  Our “sensed presence” protocol involves stimulation of one hemisphere (the right) with one signal (derived from a “chirp” sequence) followed by another signal over both hemispheres.  This optimal design for eliciting the sensed presence has been published in the literature.

Utilizing an entire room to apply the signals means that 1) brain regions outside the temporal lobes are not excluded from the stimulation, and 2) it becomes impossible to target only one of the temporal lobes, as we commonly do in our work.  In fact, we have applied our signals in the context of a whole room, and found that whole-body exposures have minimal effects, if any, even when the signals are correctly configured.  We did not publish the study, due to its trivial character, and the non-trivial efforts required by scientific journals for publications.

There are a few online sources that mistakenly claim that our work in this area has not been replicated.  This is not the case.

Several kinds of research combine to support our geophysical research in this area.  The US Geological Survey has reported earth lights in conjunction with earthquakes.  Here is one example:

“During and immediately after the main shock, ‘earthquake lights’ of white to bluish flashes or glows lasting several seconds were reported by a number of observers. Earthquake lights are associated with major earthquakes and have been observed in Japan and California. The lights are believed to be results of earthquake-induced distortions of the atmosphere.”

Several researchers have confirmed our ideas about “earthlights”, and the idea has, in fact, become commonly-accepted (as for example in Smithsonian Magazine), though there continues to be debate on the subject.   A direct replication of some of my research appears in a study by Thériault (2014) titled “Prevalence of Earthquake Lights Associated with Rift Environments” in Seismological Research Letters.  NASA now recognizes earthquake lights as precursors for earthquakes (Bluck, 2001).

“When the rocks in the Earth’s crust crackle and buckle under the onslaught of tectonic forces, the charges that are dormant in them are set free. They give rise to a dazzling array of phenomena, long known to mankind and even part of folklore in earthquake-prone regions around the globe,” said Freund. “These phenomena range from anomalous electric and magnetic signals, to ‘earthquake lights’ that illuminate the mountain tops and strange animal behavior as well as ionospheric effects that impact how radio waves travel over long distances.”

Japanese researchers (Takaki, 1998) have also observed “Change in seismic stress releases piezo-compensating, bound charges due to changes in the piezoelectric polarization of quartz grains in granitic rocks, which produces an intense electric field at the fault zone. The excited or ionized molecules by free electrons accelerated under the electric field produce luminous phenomena in the atmosphere” The also proposed “A model of dark discharge in the atmosphere before a large earthquake was proposed to elucidate the mechanism of generation of earthquake lightning and related electroatmospheric phenomena. Change in seismic stress releases piezo-compensating, bound charges due to changes in the piezoelectric polarization of quartz grains in granitic rocks, which produces an intense electric field at the fault zone.

Researchers at Rutgers University have carried out experiments that support the concept of earthquake lights by emulating earthquake conditions in the lab (Shinbrot, 2012).  These are reported as often being mistaken for UFOs, as in my tectonic strain theory of unusual events.

John Derr, a pioneer in this field of study, was one of the first to propose that geophysical strain could explain earthlights, and other luminous phenomena (Derr, 1986).

Paul Deveraux has published several books of his independent investigations showing the association of these earth lights with paranormal phenomena, which constitutes a replication and confirmation of my work in this area.

To summarize, Christopher French’s “haunted room” experiment was not a test of the tectonic strain theory in any way.  This theory has been independently validated, both in its geophysical hypothesis (that geological strain prior to earthquakes produces earth lights) and its power to explain paranormal (apparitions and UFOs) phenomena.

The theory met with criticism from one researcher, soon after it was published, and I published a reply.

I hope this blog will help to clarify my Tectonic Strain Theory, and to underscore that I am far from alone in these concepts.

Dr. Michael A. Persinger
Full Professor
Behavioural Neuroscience, Biomolecular Sciences and Human Studies
Departments of Psychology and Biology
Laurentian University,
Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6
Email: mpersinger@laurentian.ca and drpersinger@neurocog.ca
NOTE: This blog is hosted by a colleague.

 


References for this blog:

French CC, et al., The “Haunt” project: An attempt to build a “haunted” room by manipulating complex electromagnetic fields and infrasound, Cortex (2008), j.cortex.2007.10.011.

Persinger, M. A., Transient geophysical bases for ostensible UFO-related phenomena and associated verbal behavior? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1976, 43, 215-221.

Witze, Alexandra. “‘Ball lightning’may be hallucinatory.” Science News (2010): 12-12.

Robert Thériault, France St-Laurent, Friedemann T. Freund and John S. Derr “Prevalence of Earthquake Lights Associated with Rift Environments” Seismological Research Letters, 2014 V. 85, No. 1 Pg. 159-178

Tsang EW, Koren SA, Persinger MA.  “Electrophysiological and quantitative electroencephalographic measurements after treatment by transcerebral magnetic fields generated by compact disc through a computer sound card: the Shakti treatment.”  International Journal of Neuroscience. 2004 Aug;114(8):1013-24.

Persinger Michael A,  “The Neuropsychiatry of Paranormal Experiences” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 13:4, Fall 2001

Bluck , John  NASA press release,

Shunji Takaki, Motoji Ikeya  “A Dark Discharge Model of Earthquake Lightning”  Japanese Journal of Applied Physics  09/1998; 37(9A):5016-5020.

Troy Shinbrot, Nam H. Kim, and N. Nirmal Thyagu  “Electrostatic precursors to granular slip events” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2012 vol. 109 no. 27 10806–10810

P. Devereux, “Earthquake Lights Revelation,” Blandford, London, 1989.

Derr, John S.  “Rock mechanics: Luminous phenomena and their relationship to rock fracture” Nature 321, 470 – 471 (29 May 1986)

 


Corroborating studies:

Lipnicki DM. “An association between geomagnetic activity and dream bizarreness.” Medical Hypotheses. 2009 Jul;73(1):115-7.

Conesa J. “Isolated sleep paralysis, vivid dreams and geomagnetic influences: II. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1997 Oct;85(2):579-84.

Rapoport SI, Boldypakova TD, Malinovskaia NK, Oraevski? VN, Meshcheriakova SA, Breus TK, Sosnovski? AM. “Magnetic storms as a stress factor.” Biofizika [Biophysics]. 1998 Jul-Aug;43(4):632-9.

Dimitrova S, Stoilova I, Cholakov I. “Influence of local geomagnetic storms on arterial blood pressure.” Bioelectromagnetics. 2004 Sep;25(6):408-14.

Haraldsson, Erlendur; Gissurarson, Loftur R. “Does geomagnetic activity effect extrasensory perception? Personality and individual differences, 1987, v8 (n5):745-747
Berk M, Dodd S, Henry M. “Do ambient electromagnetic fields affect behaviour? A demonstration of the relationship between geomagnetic storm activity and suicide” Bioelectromagnetics. 2005 Nov 22;27(2):151-155

Raps A, Stoupel E, Shimshoni M. “Geophysical variables and behavior: LXIX. Solar activity and admission of psychiatric patients. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1992 Apr;74(2):449-50.

 


An Incomplete Bibliography of my papers on geomagnetic effects:

Persinger, Michael A. “Geophysical variables and behavior: XXX. Intense paranormal experiences during days of quiet, global geomagnetic activity” Perceptual and Motor Skills 1985 Aug v61 (n1): 320-322

Arango, Manuel A.; Persinger, Michael A. “Geophysical Variables and Human Behavior: LII Decreased Geomagnetic Activity and spontaneous Telepathic Experiences from the Sedgwick collection. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1988 Dec v67 (n3):907-909

Persinger, Michael ; Krippner, Stanley. “Dream ESP and Geomagnetic Activity” Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 1989 Apr v83 (n2):101-116.

Makarec, K.; Persinger, Michael A. Geophysical variables and behavior XLIII “Negative correlation between Geophysical Variables between accuracy of card-guessing and geomagnetic activity: A Case Study” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1987 Aug, v65 (n1) 105-106

Gearhart, Livingston; Persinger, M.A. Geophysical variables and behavior XXXIII. Onsets of historical and contemporary poltergeist episodes occured with sudden increases in geomagnetic activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1986 Apr v62 (n2) 463-466

Persinger MA. “Out-of-body-like experiences are more probable in people with elevated complex partial epileptic-like signs during periods of enhanced geomagnetic activity: a nonlinear effect.” Perceptual and Motor Skills. 1995 Apr; v80 (2):563-9.

Schaut, George B. Persinger, Michael A. “Subjective telepathic experiences, geomagnetic activity, and the elf hypothesis: I Data Analysis” PSI Research, 1958 Mar, v4 (n1):4-20

Berger R.E.; Persinger, M.A. “Geophysical variables and behavior: LXVII. Quieter annual geomagnetic Activity and effect Size for Experiemntal psi (ESP) studies over six decades”. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1991 Dec, v73 (n3, Pt2 Spec issue):1219-1223

Persinger, Michael A.; Nolan, Michael “Geophysical variables and behavior XX. “Weekly numbers of mining accidents and the weather matrix: The importance of geomagnetic variation and barometric pressure. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1984 Dec, v59 (n3):719-722

Lewicki, Dougals R.; Schaut, George H; Persinger, Michael A. “Geophysical variables and behavior XLIV. Days of subjective precognitive experiences and the days before the actual events display correlated geomagnetic activity” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1987, aug, v65 (n1):173-174

Persinger, Michael A. “Geophysical variables and behavior: L Indications of a tectonic strain factor in the Rutlidge (UFO) observations during 1973 in southwest Missouri” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1988 Oct, v67 (n2): 571-575

Persinger, M.A.; Derr, J.S. “Geophysical variables and behavior: XXII. Relations between UFO reports within the Uinta Basin and local seismicity” Perceptual and Motor Skills 1985, Feb; 60 (1) :143-152

Persinger, M.A.; Derr, J.S. “Geophysical variables and behavior: XXXII. Evaluations of UFO reports in an area of infrequent seismicity: The Carmen, Manitoba episode.” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1985 Dec, v61 (n3, Pt1): 807-813

Derr, J.S.; Persinger, M.A. “Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXVI. Seasonal hydrological load and regional luminous phenomena (UFO reports) within river systems, the Mississippi Valley test” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1993 Dec, v77 (n3, Pt62), 1163-1170

Matteson, Dan; Persinger, M.A. “Geophysical variables and behavior: XXXV. Positive correlations between numbers of UFO reports and earthquake activity in Sweden.” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1986 Oct, v63 (n2, Pt2) 921-922

Persinger, M.A.; Derr, J.S. “Geophysical variables and behavior: LXII. Temporal coupling of UFO reports and seismic energy release within the Rio Grande rift system: discrimative validity of the tectonic strain theory.” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1990 Oct, v71 (n2): 567-57

Persinger, M.A.; Derr, J.S. “Geophysical variables and behavior: XIX Strong temporal relationships between inclusive seismic measures and UFO reports within Washington state. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1984, 59, 551-566

John S. Derr & Michal A. Persinger ‘Geophysical Variables and Behavior: LIV. Zeitoun (Egypt) Apparations of the Virgin Mary as Tectonic Strain-induced Luminosities. Perceptual and Motor Skills 1989, 68, 123-128